PT 384

SMALL GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING




1. Activity: Standing up from a chair and returning to sitting

Describe in general:

a. joint motions

b. prime movers (muscle groups)

c. type of contraction

d. antagonistic muscle groups

e. synergistic muscle groups



Standing up:

joint motions: Hip: initial hip flexion, then hip extension

Knee extension

Ankle: initial dorsiflexion, then plantarflexion to neutral



Prime movers: Standing up:

Hip: hip extensors (E)*, hip extensors (C)*

Knee: knee extensors (C)

Ankle: ankle plantarflexors (E), ankle plantarflexors (C)



Sitting down:

Joint Motions: Hip: flexion

Knee: flexion

Ankle: dorsiflexion

Prime movers:

Hip: extensors (E)

Knee: extensors (E)

Ankle: plantarflexors (E)

Antagonists: hip flexors, knee flexors, ankle dorsiflexors

Synergists: hip rotators, adductors, abductors, ankle inverters, everters





*E = eccentric; C = concentric



2. Activity: push-up

Describe in general:

a. joint motions

b. prime movers (muscle groups)

c. type of muscular contraction

d. antagonistic muscle groups

e. synergistic muscle groups



Pushing up

Joint motions:

scapular: protraction

shoulder: flexion

elbow: extension

prime movers:

Scapular: protractors (C)

Shoulder: flexors (C)

Elbow: extensors (C)

Lowering to the floor

Joint motions:

scapular: retraction

shoulder: extension

elbow: flexion

Prime movers:

scapular: protractors (E)

Shoulder: Flexors (E)

Elbow: extensors (E)

Antagonists: scapular retractors, shoulder extensors, elbow flexors

Synergists: scapular rotators (upward and downward), elevators, depressors; shoulder rotators, abductors, adductors













3. Activity: Rising on the toes and returning to normal stance

Describe in general:

a. joint motions

b. prime movers (muscle groups)

c. type of muscular contraction

d. antagonistic muscle groups

e. synergistic muscle groups



Rising up:

Joint motions:

ankle: plantar flexion

MTP (metatarsal-phalangeal): hyperextension

Prime movers:

Ankle: plantarflexors (C)

MTP: toe extensors (C)

Lowering down:

Joint motions:

Ankle: dorsiflexion to neutral

MTP: flexion to neutral

Prime movers:

Ankle: plantarflexors (E)

MTP: extensors (E)

Antagonists: ankle dorsiflexors, MTP flexors

Synervgists: ankle inverters, everters























4. Activity: Kicking a ball

Describe in general

a. joint motions

b. prime movers (muscle groups)

c. type of muscular contraction

d. antagonistic muscle groups

e. synergistic muscle groups

Wind-up

Joint motions:

Hip: extension

Knee: flexion

Ankle: dorsiflexion

Prime movers:

Hip: extensors (C)

Knee: flexors (C)

Ankle: dorsiflexors (C)

Acceleration:

Joint motions:

Hip: flexion

Knee: extension

Ankle:plantarflexion or dorsiflexion, depending upon type of kick

Prime movers:

Hip: flexors (C)

Knee: extensors (C)

Ankle: plantarflexors or dorsiflexors (C), depending upon type of kick

Deceleration (after the ball leaves the foot):

Joint motions:

Hip: flexion

Knee: extension

ankle: dorsiflexion

Prime movers:

Hip: extensors (E)

Knee: flexors (E)

Ankle: plantarflexors (E)

Antagonists:

Wind-up and deceleration: hip flexors, knee extensors, ankle plantarflexors

or dorsiflexors

Acceleration: hip extensors, knee flexors

5. Activity: Bar hang to chin-up and return to bar hang

Describe in general

a. joint motions

b. prime movers (muscle groups)

c. type of muscular contraction

d. antagonistic muscle groups

e. synergistic muscle groups

Pulling up

joint motions:

scapular: retraction/ downward rotation

shoulder: extension

elbow: flexion

Prime movers:

scapular: retractors/ downward rotators (C)

Shoulder: extensors (C)

Elbow: flexors (C)

Lowering down:

Joint motions

scapular: protraction/ upward rotation

shoulder: flexion

elbow: extension

Prime movers:

scapular: retractors/ downward rotators (E)

Shoulder: extensors (E)

Elbow: flexors (E)

Antagonists: scapular upward rotators, protractors; shoulder flexors, elbow extensors

Synergists: shoulder rotators, scapular depressors

















6. Activity: Jumping in place

Describe in general:

a. joint motions

b. prime movers (muscle groups)

c. type of muscle contraction

d. antagonistic muscle groups

e. synergistic muscle groups



Jumping up:

Joint motions:

hip: extension

knee: extension

ankle: plantarflexion

Prime movers:

hip: extensors (C)

Knee: extensors (C)

Ankle: plantarflexors (C)

Landing:

Joint motions:

hip: flexion

knee: flexion

ankle: dorsiflexion

Prime movers:

hip: extensors (E)

Knee: extensors (E)

Ankle: plantarflexors (E)

Antagonists: hip flexors, knee flexors, ankle dorsiflexors

Synergists: hip rotators, ab and adductors; ankle everters, inverters

















7. Activity: Sit-up "crunch" and return to supine

Describe in general:

a. joint motions

b. prime movers (muscle groups)

c. type of muscular contraction

d. antagonistic muscle groups

e. synergistic muscle groups



Sitting up:

Joint motions:

neck: flexion

trunk: flexion

hip: flexion (depending upon LE position)

Prime movers:

neck: flexors (C)

Trunk: flexors(C)

Hip: flexors (C)

Returning to hook-lying:

Joint motions:

neck: extension

trunk: extension

hip: extension

Prime movers:

neck: flexors (E)

Trunk: flexors (E)

Hip: flexors (E)

Antagonists: neck extensors, trunk extensors, hip extensors

Synergists: neck rotators, trunk rotators, hip rotators

















8. Activity: Quadriceps and hamstrings "sets" (quad sets and ham sets)

Describe in general

a. joint motions

b. prime movers (muscle groups)

c. type of contraction

d. antagonistic muscle groups

e. synergistic muscle groups



No joint motions

Prime movers:

quad sets: knee extensors (quadriceps femoris)

ham sets: knee flexors (hamstrings)

Isokinetic contractions

Antagonists:

Quad sets: hamstrings

Ham sets: Quadriceps













































9. Activity: Walking up and down stairs (concentrate on the support leg)

Describe in general:

a. joint motions

b. prime movers (muscle groups)

c. type of contraction

d. antagonistic muscle groups



Stepping up:

joint motions:

hip: extension

knee: extension

ankle: plantarflexion

Prime movers:

hip: extensors (C)

Knee: extensors (C)

Ankle: plantarflexors (C)

Stepping down:

Joint motions:

hip: flexion

knee: flexion

ankle: dorsiflexion

Prime movers:

hip: extensors (E)

Knee: extensors (E)

Ankle: plantarflexors (E)

Antagonists: hip flexors, knee flexors, ankle dorsiflexors

Synergists: hip rotators, ab and adductors; ankle inverters, everters